Types of Cancer

Avinash Cancer Clinic    18-Oct-2022
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Oncology is a branch of medicine that specializes in the study and treatment of Cancer. Trillions of cells make up the human body. The human body's fundamental functional unit is it. Human cells typically divide to create new cells as the body requires them through a process known as cell growth and multiplication Old or damaged cells die, and new ones replace them when the body regenerates them. Cancer occurs when the body's cells grow out of control and spread to other parts of the body.

  • DiagnosisDiagnosis is the identification of a disease based on the symptoms and the cause via examination. It is after the diagnosis of the disease that the course of the treatment and the prognosis is decided.

  • PrognosisA prognosis is a prediction of the future course of a disease. A prognosis follows a diagnosis. It generally tells how long will the symptoms or the conditions last and how dangerous is condition.

  • Stages, Grade: The stage of cancer tells and describes the size of a tumor and how far it has spread from its origin. The grade of cancer depends on how the cells are looking like and what they show under the microscope.



Breast Cancer is the most common type of cancer in Indian women. Accounting for 60% of women who develop breast cancer. Breast Cancer Awareness is very important for everyone and it is also important to get educated about the disease.

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is a cancerous (malignant) tumor that starts in the cells that line the ducts and/or lobules of the breast.

Can men get breast cancer?

Yes, men do get breast cancer. Though uncommon, 8 % incidence of male breast cancer. The possibility of males getting breast cancer cannot be ignored.

When should I begin screening for breast cancer?

As per, The Indian Cancer Society (ICS) Guidelines the following early-detection screenings include a home breast cancer screening manual monthly for women at average risk for breast cancer:

  • Optional mammograms beginning at age 40
  • Annual mammograms for women ages 45 to 54
  • Mammograms every two years for women 55 and older, unless they choose to stick with yearly screenings
  • MRIs and mammograms for some women at high risk of breast cancer


GI cancers are concerns that involve the Esophagus, Stomach, and Small and Large Bones. The stomach is in the upper middle part of the belly, just below the ribs. It helps to break down and digest food.


Overall they are 3rd most common cancers in the both males and females. The survival rate of the cancer is 90% if diagnosed and treated early. Any area of the stomach might develop stomach cancer. Stomach cancer typically develops in the centre of the stomach in the majority of the world.

Anatomically structured

  • Between esophagus and stomach (GE Junction)
  • Greater Curvature
  • Lesser Curvature

Depending on the cancer cells

  • Lymphoma (blood cancer in stomach)- Gsatric Lymphoma
  • GIST- Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
  • Adenocarcinoma



Lung cancer is 3rd most common cancer in our country in men and women. Smoking is the most common cause of Lung cancer. The second most common cause is passive smoking. About 3,00,000 cases of lung cancer are diagnosed every year—and smoking contributes to the cause in about 70 % of these cases. ...
The risk increases with the number of years and the number of cigarettes you smoke. Lung cancer is usually found in people older than 55. The average age of diagnosis for lung cancer is 65, with men at slightly higher risk than women.



Head & Neck cancers include lip, oral cavity, tongue, tonsil, larynx, navopherye, salivary glands, and paropasal sinus Cancers. ... Nearly more than 6 million head and neck cancer cases on diagnosed worldwide every year out of couch 30% of cases are from India, and 50%. are from Asia. Head and neck cancers are commonest cancers in Indian males, accounting for nearly 30% of cancer causes. Our head & neck oncology division is equipped with a highly expended team of medical and surgical and radiation oncologists with therapists and Plastic Surgeons.



Ovarian cancer develops in the ovaries ( female reproductive system). The ovaries also produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.


Approximately 30 different types of ovarian cancer are based on the name of the cell in which the tumor originates. Cancerous ovarian tumors most commonly develop in the epithelial cells, which make up the outer layer of the ovary (epithelial ovarian cancer); in the germ cells, which form eggs (germ cell tumors); or in the stromal cells, which produce and release hormones (ovarian stromal tumors).

The types of cancer of the ovaries include:
  • Epithelial ovarian carcinomas, including mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, undifferentiated, and, in rare instances, some that form in ovarian low malignant potential tumors
  • Primary peritoneal carcinoma (also called primary peritoneal cancer)
  • Fallopian tube cancer
  • Dysgerminoma ovarian germ cell cancer
  • Endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor)
  • Tumors and Sertoli-Leydig tumors
  • Ovarian sarcomas, including carcinosarcomas, adenosarcomas, and fibrosarcomas
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Recurrent ovarian cancer
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors (also called sex cord tumors, sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors, or ovarian stromal tumors), including granulosa cell tumors, granulosa-theca



Thalassemia is an inherited condition affecting the capacity of the body to produce blood.... Thalassemia varies in severity requiring no treatment to severe forms requiring lifelong transfusions.


Colorectal cancer develops in the tissues of the colon and/or rectum. The lower part of the gastrointestinal (digestive) system contains the colon and rectum form a long, muscular tube called the largest intestine, its function is to absorb food and water and store the waste. The rectum is responsible for passing waste from the body. Thalassemia varies in severity requiring no treatment to severe forms requiring lifelong transfusions.

  • Cancer develops when: Polyps, mushroom-like growths inside the colon, grow and become cancerous
  • Cells along the lining of the colon or rectum mutate and grow out of control, forming a tumor.
Types of colorectal cancer:

More than 95 percent of all colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas of the colon or rectum. Colorectal adenocarcinomas form in glands that secrete fluids to lubricate the colon and rectum. Adenocarcinomas are found in most common cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

  • Other types of colorectal cancer include:Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors
  • Primary colorectal lymphomas
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors


Brain Cancer 

A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain. The exact cause of Brain cancer is not known.

... Types of Brain cancer:
  • Astrocytomas
  • Ependymomas
  • Oligodendroglioma
  • Mixed gliomas
  • Pituitary adenomas
  • Pituitary carcinomas
  • Germ cell tumors
  • Pineal region tumors
  • Craniopharyngiomas
  • Germ cell tumors
  • Medulloblastomas
  • Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas


Thyroid Cancer 

Thyroid cancer accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases. Thyroid cancer is abnormal cell growth that begins in the thyroid. The thyroid gland is butterfly-shaped at the base of the neck, just below Adam's apple. Hormones produced by the thyroid regulate heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight.

... Types of thyroid cancer:
  • Papillary thyroid cancer, the most common thyroid carcinoma, forms from follicular cells
  • Follicular thyroid cancer, is a differentiated thyroid cancer, meaning the cancer cells resemble normal thyroid cells
  • Hürthle cell thyroid cancer also called oxyphil cell carcinoma, which is a subtype of follicular carcinoma
  • Medullary thyroid cancer, a carcinoma that develops from C cells in the thyroid gland, including familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2)
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the most undifferentiated type of thyroid carcinoma, meaning the thyroid tumor cells look more like cancer cells than normal cells.